African Violet Care
Moderately bright light (Diffused Sunlight) is preferred near a sunny East or West Window. Never direct sunlight. Solution exposures are suitable during winter months when sunlight is less strong.
Water thoroughly when soil surface feels dry to the touch every 7 days. Good drainage is important. Always use warm water because cold water foliage can cause spotting. Water plants away from direct bright sunlight.
Drain excess water in saucer at base of plant to prevent root rot. Plants can be watered from either the top or bottom. If watering from the bottom let plants sit in water for no more than 20 minutes, then discard excess water.
Once a month water from the top to flush out salts that accumulate from fertilizers.
Warm temperatures are ideal. 65 to 80 degrees F. And 65 to 70 degrees F at nights. Avoid excessively hot, cold or drafty areas.
Feeding should be done when plants are in bloom. Either 14-12-14 Optimara plant food or 12-36-14 Peters Violet food are good choices. Use 1/4 teaspoon to a gallon jug of water and use this mixture very time you water.
Re-potting African Violets: Violets purchased from our Greenhouse should remain in those 4″ or 2″ pots for at least 4 months until they become adjusted to your home atmosphere. Plants bloom best when pot-bound.
Only use African Violet soil mix when re-potting since it is a light porous medium that drains well. Re-pot when plant is out of bloom.
Temperature The ideal temperature range is 65 – 85 degrees F.
Light The light source should be strong and indirect. Do not place in direct sunlight.
Water Thoroughly every 7 to 10 days. Water must drain from the pot. Keep orchid mix moist but not saturated. Always remember to drain the saucer also.
Feeding Every 2 weeks while in bloom.
After flowering is complete Cut off the flower spike below the lowest flower 1/4″ above the next node. A new spike should grow from that node. When the secondary spike has finished flowering, cut off the entire spike back to the base.
Normal flowering is between mid-September and mid-May.
Repot Normally every two years or when needed with orchid potting mix.
This is an extraordinary large and diverse New World genus with an equally diverse number of habitats. Oncidiums may originate anywhere from sea level in the tropics to the high elevations of the Andes. This obviously makes cultural generalizations difficult. More specific instructions may be available from the grower. Some genera included are Aspasia, Brassia, warm-growing miltonias (often called the Brazilian type) and many of their hybrids.
Light needs can vary from bright to nearly full direct sun depending on the species. Most will thrive with one to several hours of sun a day. Generally thicker-leaved plants such as “mule-ear” and “equilant” oncidiums, can stand more light. In a greenhouse, 20 to 60 percent shade is required, or about 2,000 to 6,000 fot-candles, depending on the plants. In the home, east, south or west windows are ideal. Many types of oncidiums will grow under artificial light: Four fluorescent tubes supplemented with incandescent bulbs and paced 6 to 10 inches over the plants are necessary for proper growth. Metal-halide and sodium-vapor bulbs also provide sufficient light without needing to be so close to the plants.
Temperatures for this group are generally considered intermediate to warm: 55 to 60 at night, and 80 to 85 F during the day. Temperatures up to 95 to 100 F are tolerated if humidity and air movement are increased as the temperature rise, a good general rule in any case.
Water requirements vary with the type of plant. Generally, plants with large fleshy roots or leaves need less-frequent watering than thin-leaved or thin -rooted plants. Watering should be thorough, and the medium should dry at least halfway through the pot before watering again. This may be every two to 10 days depending on weather, pot size and material, type orchid and type of potting medium. Plants not actively growing should be watered less: many species have winter rest periods.
Humidity should be between 30 and 60 percent. Many oncidiums require less humidity than other orchids. Most greenhouses have adequate humidity. In the home, placing the plants above moist pebbles in trays is ideal.
Fertilize regularly while plants are actively growing. Applications of 30-10-10 formulations twice a month are ideal for plants in a bark-based potting medium. A 20-20-20 formulation should be used on plants in other media or on slabs.
If skies are cloudy, applications once a month are sufficient.
Potting should be done when new growth is about one-half mature, which is usually in the spring. Fine-grade potting media are usually used with fine rooted plants and coarser mixes with large-rooted plants; the standard size is medium grade. The plant should be positioned in the pot so that the newest growth is farthest away from the edge of the pot, allowing the maximum number of new growths before crowding the pot. Spread the roots over a cone of potting medium and fill in around the roots. Firm the medium around the roots. Keep humidity high and the potting medium dry until new roots form.
Dendrobium is a diverse genus of orchids with different cultural needs. Many go through a growth phase and then a rest phase during the course of one year, and must be given water and temperature to match these periods of growth and rst. Flowers can last one day to many weeks, depending on the type. Owing to the extreme diversity of the genus, we have categorized culture according to the following main types:
PHALAENANTHE Evergreen for several years, with thin, tall pseudobulbs, terminal inflorescences, usually appearing in the autumn or twice a year (see culture). Species such as Den. affine, Den. higibbum (phalaenopsis), Den. dicuphum and Den. williamsianum.
Culture Grow warm year round (see below); 60F nights; water and fertilize heavily when roots appear from new growth; medium light; reduce water and fertilize after growth finishes. If a short (three-to-four-week), cooler (55F) dry rest is given, and then plants are warmed again (60F minimum), another growth may mature during winter and flower in the spring. Treat this growth as a summer growth cycle. These grow well with phalaenopsis, except for the rest period. Plants will go deciduous if grown too cool and dry.
SPATULATA (Antelope Type) Evergreen for several years. Most are large, vigorous plants with long-lasting flowers in the summer to several times a year.
Species such as Den. lineale (veratrifolium, Den. stratiotes, Den. strehloceras and Den. taurinum).
Culture Warm all year (60 to 65 F nights, 75 to 90 F days); no rest period; can be kept cooler in winter if dry; medium to high light.
DENDROBIUM Most of the plants are pendulous, with leaves all along the canes that most often drop with onset of cooler, drier weather. One to five flowers per node are borne from the nodes of the leafless canes in
mid-winter through early spring.
Group 1 Species such as Den. chrysanthum, Den. friedricksianum, Den. nobile and Den. wardianum.
Culture Growth period in summer; give warmth, water and fertilize heavily from when roots appear until top leaf appears on canes. Then give high light, little or no water, no fertilizer, cool nights (40 to 50 F). In other words, forget about them.
Group 2 Species such as Den. anosmum (superbum), Den. crassinode, Den. falconeri, Den. fimbriatum, Den. findlayanum, Den. heterocarpum (aureum), Den. loddigesii, Den. moniliforme,
Den. parishii, Den. primulinus and Den transparens.
Culture Same as Group 1, but winter nights 55 F. Deciduous species need virtually no water in winter.
CALLISTA Most are pseudobulbous plants with pendent inflorescences. Species such as Den. aggregatum (now properly lindleyi), Den chrysotoxum, Den. densiflorum, Den. farmeri and Den. thyrsiflorum.
Culture Summer give warmth (60 to 90F), medium light, medium quantities of water and fertilizer. Winter keep cool (50 F nights), medium light, just enough water to keep pseudobulbs from shriveling, no fertilizer.
LATOURIA Leaves at top of pseudobulbs are large and leathery, inflorescence erect, flowers commonly yellow-green. Species such as Den. atroviolaceum, Den. macrophyllum and Den. spectabile.
Culture Same as antelope types, but cooler and drier when resting in winter.
FORMOSAE (Nigrohirsutae Type) Canelike pseudobulbs, with black hairs on leaf sheaths and pseudobulbs often apparent, leading to the popular name nigrohisutae. Flowers usually white, up to 4 inches across, two to three together from near the end of the pseudobulb. Long lasting. Species such as Den. bellatulum, Den. dearii, Den. draconis, Den. formosum, Den. infundibulum, Den. lowii, Den. lyonii, Den. margaritaceum, Den. sanderae and Den. schuetzii.
Culture Intermediate to cool year round, 50 to 60 F nights, maximum 85 F days. Water and fertilize when growing; give a slight short rest (dry) when growth is completed. Keep barely moist until growth starts again.
OTHER SPECIES Among the popular types are Den. linguiforme, Den. tetragonum, Den. gracillimum and Den. cuth bertsonii (sophronitis).
Culture Depends on the plant’s native environment. It is generally safe to grow them intermediate to warm (55 to 60 F at night), drying them out in winter (or as growth stops). Hybrids between sections vary in culture.
Violets Add A Special Touch For Your Formal Occasion
- Bridal Showers
- Baby Showers
- Award Dinners
No Matter What The Occasion…
African Violets are a unique way to add a touch of class to your event.
Please call or stop in and ask for Dee our flower designer.